Centre for the Study of Terrorism-University of St.
ERRI Counter-Terrorism Archive,
Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org
International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism,
War on Terrorism, www.yama333tripod.com
. See also www.dmoz.org and http://www.bcr.org/%7Emsauers/wtc.html
National Security Institute,
Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute,
www.mipt.org see also the
Terrorism Knowledge Base http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp.
Public Broadcasting System,
Rand Corporation, www.rand.org
South Asia Terrorism Portal,
United States Institute of Peace,
Anser Institute for Home Land Security,
***The best sites
University of Michigan Documents Center: American's War On
United States Department of State International Information
Program (this new site has a
comprehensive set of links), http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror
United Nations, http://un.org/terrorism
of terrorism: http://terrorismfiles.org
New Terrorism (Oxford; 1999) Well-written coverage of the changing nature of international
Jessica Stern, The
Ultimate Terrorists (Harvard; 1999) An introduction to the looming threat of
weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Jonathan R. White,
Terrorism: An Introduction (Wadsworth; 2002) A solid text which should be utilized
as a basic reference tool.
The rapid unfolding
of events necessitates supplementing these texts with articles and reports on
the internet. We have attempted to provide you with sources ranging from the
elemental to the esoteric. The White volume also is integrated with http://infotrac.thomsonlearning.com.
The password accompanies the book. This site is awkwardly organized, but
provides articles and links on a wide-range of topics. We have found the site to
be uneven in quality, but encourage you consult this resource. Relevant
material also will be distributed in class.
The pertinent internet sites
post material on a daily basis and there undoubtedly are significant articles
and documents which have not been included on the syllabus. You should feel free to supplement the
reading and to call pertinent essays and sites to our attention.
The fluidity of the current crisis necessitates an elastic
and flexible approach to the course. We anticipate that the class schedule,
readings and assignments may be altered or modified in response to unfolding
We are committed to
creating a "learning community. " Your assistance is encouraged in
arranging speakers, films and in
organizing class projects. The podium is open to all serious points of view
which advance the class by providing
insight into relevant issues. You also will have the opportunity to participate
in a listserv with students in the Middle East who will provide suggested readings
and alternative perspectives.
The course is a survey of pertinent issues. An investigation
of terrorism is necessarily inter- disciplinary and a complete coverage would
entails a broad examination of the socio-economic, political and cultural structures of global society. We have
attempted to strike a balance between a
broad and narrow approach. Some of you may find the course constrained and
cramped; others broad and amorphous.
This topic is fraught with issues and concerns which may
offend cultural and religious
sensitivities. The very choice and organization of topics reflects our
biases and points of view. We would ask
that you exercise a welcoming and sensitive approach to the perspectives
presented and expressed. Please
approach us with your concerns.
Our approach is to aspire to be neutral and objective in the
presentation of the material. We are committed to provoking thought and
reflection and our comments should not be viewed as reflecting our personal
views. At the same time, you will be
evaluated on the quality and logic of your work regardless of your personal or
(Tentative) Class Schedule
Week I: January 8:
Andrew Sullivan, This Is What A Day Means, New York Times
Magazine and Why Did It Have To Be A Perfect Day? Sunday Times of London, www.andrewsullivan.com
. Please also consult Portraits In Grief, New York Times
(available on the web)
This brief assignment is intended to provoke reflection and
thought on the impact of the events of September 11, 2001. How has your life
been altered? Your sense of security and well-being? Image and perception of
the United States and the world? The New York Times has compiled biographical notes.
Peruse these descriptions and find three people you find
particularly compelling. Why do you identify with these individuals? What is
your reaction to the biographical sketches? I would like some these essays to
be read in class. Those of you who feel comfortable with this are invited to submit an additional copy of your essay on
which your name does not appear. This anonymous paper then will be read to the
class by a colleague.
You also might want to tour the Oklahoma City National
Assignment I: September 11, 2001. Write an essay reflecting
your personal reactions to the events of September 11, 2001. Andrew Sullivan's
articles might provoke thought. In addition, discuss three people appearing in
portraits of grief.
January 10: Suicide bombers/religious & political
Laqueuer: 93-94; 100-01; 134-138; 139-42; 140-51;
191-96 / Stern: 84-85 / White: 97-100; 135-151; 154-161; 199-202;
Joseph Lelyveld, All Suicide Bombers Are Not Alike, NYT
Magazine (available on the web)
Rational Fanatics, Foreign Policy (available at the Foreign Policy site)
John Daly, Suicide bombing: no warning, and no total
solution, Jane's Terrorism &
Sri Lanka: Suicide Bombers Ultimate Sacrifice, Far Eastern
Economic June 1, 2000 (available on the web).
The views of Palestinian Psychiatrist Dr. Eyad Sarraj also may be Of
interest, Why We Have Become Suicide Bombers, http://www.middleeast.org . An informative essay is Nasar Hasssan, An Arsenal of Believers, The New Yorker,
Essays on suicide bombers by Yoram Schweitzer, Boaz Ganor
and Reuven Paz may be found at http://www.ict.org.il/articles/
. A full documentation of Tamil Tiger
A simple, but solid introduction to Islam is on PBS.Org
(click on Empire of Faith). Those of you interested in women in the Middle East
and Asia would be interested in the film, The Circle; consult http://rawa.org for information on
Does the phrase "suicide bomber" reflect a bias?
What is the historical precedent for suicidal
behavior by terrorists? Are there conditions which encourage
"suicide bombers?" Can this conduct be deterred or discouraged? What
are the tactical advantages and disadvantages of suicide bombings? Are suicide
bombers courageous martyrs or mad and maniacal? Do suicide bombers differ from
other terrorists? What does this indicate concerning the nature of contemporary
Assignment II. Suicide Bombers: Martyrs or Misfits? What
motivates these individuals? Are they
devoted political activists, religious martyrs, confused and aimless individuals or
mentally deranged? What does this
indicate concerning the nature of contemporary terrorism? How can this be
combated? (8 points/three pages) Due on January 24, 2002.
Film: One Day In September (Olympics)
1936 Berlin Olympic Games, http://www.ushmm.org/olympics (take an
on-line tour of an exhibit on the 1936 Olympics)
1972 Munich Olympic
This Academy Award winning film is a companion to Simon
Reeve, One Day In September. reflect on
the characteristics and context of this attack. The film also analyzes the
response of various States and the international community and the reverberations
of the assault on the victims, their families and on the perpetrators. The Battle of Algiers is recommended
for further insights into terrorism.
Assignment III: Let the Games Begin? Why were the Munich
Olympics targeted for terrorist attack?
What was the impact? How did the German and Israeli governments react? What was
the response of the international community ? Were the terrorists bought to
"justice?" Should the Olympics have been (briefly) suspended or cancelled? What was the aftermath?
January 22: The Language of Terrorism
January 24: Film: In
Search of Bin Laden
PBS has provided background material on Osama Bin
Laden (search under Frontline/In Search of Bin Laden). The site for Looking for Answers/Frontline on Pbs.org has an excellent collection of materials on
Osama Bin Laden and Al Queda. Other articles worth examining include Mary Anne Weaver, Blowback , Atlantic Monthly (links). Mary Anne
Weaver also has a good biographical essay on Bin Laden on the New Yorker site,
Mary Anne Weaver, The Real Bin Laden, Newyorker.com. Bernard Lewis, The Roots
of Muslim Rage Atlantic Monthly (links). Also see Bernard Lewis' valuable
essay, The Revolt of Islam, The New Yorker, Newyorker.com. (more
on bin Laden from this site)
You will find a wide
selection of informative articles on the Atlantic Monthly and New Yorker sites.
You also might want to peruse Bernard Lewis, License To
Kill, Foreign Affairs (Nov/Dec 1998); Jessica Stern, Pakistan's Jihad Culture, Foreign
The Rand Review has a special issue on religious terrorism
with an essay by Bruce Hoffman. Rand.org
The best analysis of Bin Laden's philosophy is the recently published essay by Micahel Doran,
Understand the Enemy (Foreign Affairs, Jan./Feb. 2002).
Two of Bin Laden's Fatwas are available on the
Post site (click on America At War and search under Bin Laden's Fatwas). Ladenese Epistle: Declaration of War (parts
I, III). You also might examine relevant portions of the transcript released on
September 13, 2001which is available at most newspaper sites and at
findlaw.com. A CIA analysis of Bin
Laden is available on the National
Security Archives, a site devoted to providing original documents to researchers.
An interview with Bin Laden by the al Jazeera television
station may be found at the site of the Terrorism Research Center, http://www.terrorism.com. You might find
it interesting to examine the speeches of
President George Bush. Several of the President's more important
statements are available at Findlaw.com (War on Terrorism) and on various
government sites; the Center for Strategic Education at the
Johns Hopkins School of
International Service links to a site organized by Gary Price at George
Washington University which has a good selection of statements by governmental
officials. Sais is an excellent site for links to agencies and domestic and foreign
compilation of documents and commentaries relating to Osama Bin Laden is at the
International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, http://www.ict.org . One unique document is Bin
Laden's farewell message, "Usama Bin Laden's Message for the Youth of the
Muslim Ummah," http://www.ict.org.il/spotlight/def.cfm?id=716
. The Department of State International
Information Program and University of Michigan sites also are helpful. The Michigan site has an interview with Mullah Omar. You also might
be interested in Reuven Paz, Programmed Terrorists, An Analysis of the Letter
Left Behind by the September 11 Hijackers.
The charters of a
number of terrorist groups may be found at http://www.ict.org.il/
> International Terrorism > Profiles.
C.J.M. Drake, The Role Of Ideology In Terrorist's Target
Selection, Terrorism & Political Violence
We will examine the background and public statements of
Osama Bin Laden and relate terrorist ideology to terrorist targets, tactics and
strategies. Is language revealing of terrorist intent and aspiration? What is
the role of rhetoric in terrorists' political strategy? Is there a connection
between ideology, language and terrorist targets? What of terrorists who do not
reveal their identity or goals? How is
language tailored to the audience? Are the aspirations and nature of terrorism
Assignment IV: The Language of Terrorism: Rhetoric or
Revealing? Discuss the background and ideology of Osama Bin Ladin. How does he
employ language as a political strategy? Does Bin Laden's rhetoric differ from
Psychology : The "Lone Wolf"
Read the case file on the "Unabomber," Ted
Kaczynski at www.courttv.com (famous cases). Focus
on the psychological evaluation and skim his essay on technology and the
trial testimony. You also might consult, unabombertrial.com. Is Ted Kaczynski emblematic of "lone
wolf" terrorists committed to a "single issue?" What are Ted
Koyznski's defining characteristics? Compare Ted Kaczynski to Sirhan Sirhan,
John Hinckley, Lee Harvey Oswald and to
other assassins. As a matter of interest you may want to peruse the
(unrelated) materials on the Symbionese Liberation Army (trial of Sara Jane
Olson) which is available on this site.
Psychology: The Political Terrorist
Laqueuer: 79-105 /
Stern: 69-86 / White: 18-44
Examine the brief article by Connor Cruise O'Brien, Thinking
About Terrorism, PBS.Org (Target America).
An interesting essay is Nicholas Lemann, What Terrorists Want, New
Yorker.com. You may want to read the Al Queda military manual, http://www.mipt.org . (library). Also available at findlaw.com. For some skeptical
views on the value of psychological analysis read an essay by the former Director of Counter-Terrorism at the United
States Department of State, www.whyfiles.org/140terror_psych/
. You also might want to examine an
interview with Clark McCauley Director
of the Asch Center at the University of Pennsylvania.
Return to the Pbs.org site for the film Hunting Bin Laden
and read the material on Wadih El Hage. The site for the film, Saudi Time Bomb,
provides additional material on Faroun Hazul. The University of Michigan
documentation center provides descriptions of (click on suspects) some of the
perpetrators of the September 11, 2001,
you might be interested in reading about Ayman Al-Zawahri and Loft Raissi. We
will devote some attention to Mohammed Ata, this material is compiled at the
University of Michigan site. There also
likely will be some discussion of the Baader Meinhoff Gang in Germany, http://www.baader-meinhof.com/ . This
group is well-covered in White, 175-178.
In weeks four and five we will consider the psychology of
the terrorist and the merits of some prevailing theories and the distinctions
between terrorists. Consider whether psychology is a useful analytical approach
to understanding terrorism. Are
terrorists distinct from common criminals? From political activists? Can we
generalize about the psychological profile of terrorists? Are terrorists rational political actors?
What is the source of data on terrorists? How does the analysis of terrorists
influence the approach of courts, prisons and the police?
Assignment V: Profiling the Psychology of Terrorists. Detail
the various views concerning the psychological profile of terrorists. Can
psychology contribute to the study of terrorism? Might psychology obscure socio-economic and political motivations?
Are terrorists merely "normal"
individuals with strong and sustaining views? Rational political actors whose actions are predictable and can
be deterred? Are they distinct from common criminals? Should the criminal
justice system treat terrorists as ordinary criminals, political offenders,
prisoners of war or mentally challenged? Integrate the material from January
31st and February 5th into your essay. You may choose to paint a portrait of a
particular terrorist or terrorist group. Also note that the victim impact
statements in the trial of Ted Kacynski raise some profound issues concerning the justifiability of
January 31: Film. Trail Of A Terrorist
This film details the motives and methodologies Ahmed
Ressam, the "millennium bomber."
What is the underlying message of the film in regards to Ahmed
Ressam? Also available from PBS is the
film The Terrorist Network. A&E has recently produced films on Osama Bin
Laden and the September 11 perpetrators which I am able to make available.
Read the background material accompanying the film at
Pbs.org. Note Ressam's trial testimony.
You may want to examine the FBI site for the most wanted
February 5: "Super-Terrorists"
Laqueur: 190-209 /
White: 221-36. You may also want to examine 204-19
Ehud Sprinzak, The Great Superterrorism Scare, Foreign
Policy & Ehud Spinzak, The Lone
Gunmen, Foreign Policy, http://www.foreignpolicy.com
. Review the materials relating to the
Oklahoma City Bombing Trial, Courttv.com (famous cases). You will find a selection of material on the Oklahoma
Memorial site, http://www.mipt.org . The
Thomson Learning site also
contains a number of articles on the trial, many of which
consider the justifiability of the death penalty and whether the execution of
Timothy McVeigh should have been televised. You might take an on-line tour of
the Oklahoma Memorial. Consider the debate around the execution of Timothy
McVeign and what it reveals about attitudes towards terrorism.
February 7: Looking For Answers
The Pbs.org. site has essays on Saudi Arabia,
Egypt and United States intelligence. Consider
the four essays which discuss a structural and cultural approach to the causes
of unrest and terrorism: Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations (Foreign
Affairs and book excerpt); Bernard Lewis, The Roots of Muslim Rage and Edward Said, The Clash of Ignorance.
A regional perspective on terrorism is available from the
South Asia Terrorism Portal, http://www..icm-satp.com/
The next three classes will examine trends and developments
in the Islamic world, particularly in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, two countries
closely allied to the United States. Why were a disproportionate number of
individuals involved in the September 11, 2001 incident and major figures in Al
Queda from these two countries? We will be exploring the contention that there
is a close correlation between strong religious belief and terrorism. In
analyzing this question we will look at the Japanese group, Aum Sinrikyo and
various Islamic terrorists .
Assignment VI: Saudi Arabia, Egypt And September 11,
2001. Read the articles on Saudi Arabia
and Egypt and consider the contending
causes of unrest and terrorism. Is the argument that there is a relationship
between strong religious commitments and terrorism overly simplistic?
Also consider the material discussed on February 12 along with the film
Saudi Time Bomb. Why did a disproportionate number of the perpetrators of the
events of September 11, 2001 come from Saudi
Arabia? What accounts for the fact
that many of the major figures in Al Queda are from Egypt?
Religion and Terrorism
Aum Shinrikyo: Stern 60-68
/ Laqueur: 254—82 / White: 240-42
Research Planning Inc. Aum Shinrkyo: Once and Future Threat,
findlaw.com Rueven Paz, programmed
Terrorists (letter of Sept. 11, 2001), http://ict.org.il
White: 46-61; 152-170
/ Laqueur: 81-90
Bruce Hoffman, Old Madness, New Methods: Revival of
Religious Terrorism Begs for Broadening U.S. Policy (Rand Corporation),
findlaw.com Anthony Cordesman et. al. , Islamic Extremism in Saudi Arabia and
the Attack on Al Khobar (Center for Strategic and International Studies),
findlaw.com Magnus Ranstorp, Terrorism In The Name of Religion (St. Andrews link
at ERRI site).
Andrew Sullivan, This Is A Religious War, New York Times
Magazine, Andrewsullivan.com Jessica Stern, Pakistan's Jihad Culture (Foreign
February 14: Saudi Time Bomb
Reading: Read the material on the PBS.Org site.
*The film Kandahar is at the Music Box Theater for several
days, beginning February 15th. You may want to consult www.rawa.org
information on women in Afghanistan.
February 19 & 21: Terrorism: History,
Laqueuer: 8-48 / Stern: 1-10; 69-86
/ White: 3-17; 63-77;
Paul Wilkinson, the
Strategic Implications of Terrorism,
Center for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, St. Andrews
Review the Counter-Terrorism Office, http://www.stategov./s/ct/
. Boaz Ganor, Terrorism: No Prohibition Without Definition, ict.org. You also
might examine Findl.law.com and peruse the Federal Bureau of Investigation
terrorist threat assessment. Pbs.org (Target America) has excerpts from the
Congressional Research Service report, Terrorism, the Future and U.S. Foreign
Policy (2001). Also, on the same site, note the National Commission on
Terrorism, Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism.
A number of sites have data on terrorist incidents (eg. ict,
erri, ). A catalogue of terrorist
incidents is provided on the State Department International Information Program
page. The Michigan site is a useful resource for documents on threat
Ian Lesser et. al. Countering The New Terrorism, http://www.rand.org/ (introduction)
Anthony Cordesman et. al. The Changing Face Of Terrorism And
Technology, Findlaw.com (Center for Strategic and International Studies)
Paul Pillar, Terrorism Goes Global: Extremist Groups Extend
Their Global Reach, Findlaw.com (Brookings)
Neal A. Pollard, What is the Future of Terrorism, www.terrorism.com
Next-Generation Terrorism Analysis, www.terrorism.com
Lynne Fischer, The Threat of Domestic Terrorism,
Steven Sloan, How Vulnerable is the U.S., terrorism.com
John Arquill and David, Ronfeldt, Networks And Netwars: The
Future of Terror, Crime and Military, www.rand.org
We will trace the history and incidence of terrorism and
analyze various definitions and historical documents. Contemporary terrorism should be viewed as the accumulation of
tactics, strategies and weapons developed over various historical epochs. How has the nature of terrorism differed in various historical
periods? What accounts for the differences in the definitions of terrorism?
What are the trends in terrorism? Does September 11, 2001 mark a
Assignment VII: What issues arise in defining
terrorism? Discuss the
distinguishing characteristics of the
"new terrorism." Are there continuities with the past? What types of terrorist activity can we anticipate in the future? Consider
which strategies might be deployed to
February 26: Film. Ambush In Mogadishu.
This film discusses United States armed intervention in
Somalia and illustrates the perils of
military deployment. Some of you may have read the book Black Hawk Down
by Mark Bowden and/or have viewed the
On asymmetrical warfare consider The Estimate: Mismatch
Between Israel and Palestinian Tactics is a Classic Case of the Problems Of
Asymmetric Warfare, findlaw.com. There are three articles on the United
States Army link on findlaw.com,, the best is Back to the Future with
Asymmetric Warfare. There also is a statement by former Secretary of Defense
Findlaw.com. An excellent discussion of the changing nature
of warfare is on the PBS.Org site , The Future of Warfare.
You also may be interested in the intelligence dimension.
Findl.law.com provides several documents from the Central Intelligence
Agency. Consider the readings on United
States intelligence accompanying the film
by Paul Pillar, Loch Johnson, Marc Gerecht, Seymour Hersh, Richard
What are the justifications and risks of military
intervention against terrorism? Consider the legal norms and standards
governing military deployment and the utilization of armed force? How should the United States address the threat
posed by "failed" and "rogue" States?
Assignment VIII: This film raises the issue of the
constraints and conditions for United States military intervention abroad. What
policy should be followed against the threat posed by "failed" and
"rogue" States? Read the articles accompanying the film. In the discussion you should consider the perspectives discussed on
February 28th. You may want to write on the change in the nature of warfare
necessitated by the war of terrorism or on the issues confronting the media in covering the war on terrorism
discussed on March 5th
February 28: State Terrorism: Military Intervention in
Afghanistan and "Failed" and "Rogue" States: Military Force Under International
Frederic L. Kirgis and other scholars discuss the United
States right of self-defense under international law in Afghanistan, www.asil.org
(click on analysis). This site has an excellent inventory of electronic resources. You will
find the relevant sections of the United Nations Charter and various
international conventions. In particular, pay attention to Articles 2(4) and 51
and the provisions of the Charter pertaining to the role of the Security
Council in addressing threats to the peace.(Chapter VII). You also might
consult the Crimes of War Project, http://crimesofwar.org . (see the interview
with military officials on the law of terrorism). There are occasional relevant
essays on http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/terrorism.htm
Human Rights Watch has an excellent summary of humanitarian
law (Q & A on humanitarian law). You may want to examine the Presidential
Directives setting forth United States foreign policy towards terrorism,
find.law.com (under Presidential Directives see documents 21,6 & 8). The
United Kingdom documentation of Al Queda's responsibility for the September 11,
2001 attack on the World Trade Towers also is available at findlaw.com. The War
Powers Resolution and Article Five of the NATO Treaty are on the Oklahoma City
Also consult the State Department Information Program and
the University of Michigan
Thomas Hunter, The Use of Force in Response to
Hoover Institute, International Relations the Next Threat,
Findlaw.com (click on Afghanistan)
The United Nations provides relevant international documents
on terrorism, http://un.org/terorism and a wide-range of documents.
State Terrorism: A Critique of United States Intervention in
Afghanistan and War on Terrorism
Human Rights Watch (Q & A on humanitarian law; crimes
against humanity). You also might generally peruse the Amnesty International site. One of the
most interesting critics of United States policy is Indian author and novelist
Arundhati Roy. You can read The Algebra Of Infinite Justice and Brutality
Smeared In Peanut Butter. One of the most outspoken domestic critics is Noam Chomsky. A number of his essays and interviews on
9/11 are available on the web. Links to
articles and sites with material critical of the Afghan intervention and the
United States military effort to combat terrorism. For speculation on future United States military interventions and the debate
within the United States government you might consult Seymour Hersh, The
Iraq Hawks, New Yorker.com. You also may want to research the human rights
record of some of the United States' allies in the Afghan intervention at the Department of State's Human Rights
White: 256-66 / Laqueur: 43-45
Brian Houghton and Neal A. Pollard, The Media and Terrorism,
Paul Wilkinson, The Media and Terror: A Reassessment,
Terrorism & Political Violence (1997), Centre for the Study of
Terrorism, (linked at ERRI
Dr. Ehsan Ahari, Al Jazeera's Unwitting Role in the
'Unrestricted' Afghan War (Center for Defense Information), http://www.cdi.org
A liberal organization devoted to constructive commentary
and criticism of media bias is www.Fair.org.
Accuracy in Media is a conservative group with the same purpose, www.aim.org .
The Committee to Protect Journalists is a most important and
interesting site for media coverage of
Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press occasionally
carries relevant essays, http://www.rcfp.org/
The media is integral to the tactics and strategies of
terrorism. How should journalists balance the right to know" against the
interests of national security? Has the coverage of the war on terrorism been
fair and full? Are there structural constraints and impediments to reporting?
What issues arise in media coverage of terrorism and armed conflict?
March 7: Film: Target America
The reading accompanying the film, Pbs.org, provides a
time-line of terrorist attacks against the United States, interviews with
government officials and several articles (Richard Betts, Ashton Carter et.
al., Paul Pillar, Lawrence Kaplan, Hendrik Hertzberg and Philip Wilcox).
Another informative essay is Anthony Cordesman, Homeland Defense: The Current
and Future Terrorist Threat, findlaw.com (Center for International and
We will be sketching contemporary terrorist attacks on the
United States. Consider the causes, consequences and continuities of these
shootings and bombings? What is the
nature of the threat confronting the United States?
We will be focusing on the embassy bombings in Tanzania and
Discuss the recent series of terrorist attacks on the United States as
detailed in the film, Target America, the accompanying readings and in
class. Is it accurate to view the United
States as confronting a terrorist challenge to the country's safety and
security? What of the prospect of the
deployment of a WMD, particularly a biological weapons ? Consider the material
presented in the readings and classes of March 12-March 28 and April 9
March 12: The Contemporary
Context: CIA Headquarters, Khobar
Towers, Lockerbie, the United States Cole, Tanzania and Kenya
Embassy Millenium Bombings
The State Department International Information Program and
the University of Michigan Documentation Center provide comprehensive sets of
documents and commentaries on these events.
CIA Shootings: The decision in the case of Aimal Kasi convicted of the 1988 shooting at
the CIA Headquarters in Langley Virginia may be found at the Oklahoma Memorial
Khobar Towers: A Congressional Research Service report on
Khobar Towers is at findlaw.com. You can read the report of Secretary of
Defense William Cohen, www.defenselink.mil/pubs/khobar
The indictment is found at find.law.com (click on prior
The United States Cole. The report of the commission which
investigated the bombing of the United States Cole in Yemen may be found at the
Oklahoma Memorial site. You also might examine several Congressional Research
Service reports on this incident, findlaw.com.
Yahoo provides a news summary of these attacks.
A Congressional Research Service report on
the Tanzania and Kenya Embassy bombings is at findlaw.com. You will find the transcript and sentencing
in the embassy bombing trial at findlaw.com (click on background prior
cases). The site also provides the
indictment of El-Hage. The report of the Accountabilty Review Board is
available at the site of the Terrorism Research Center.
The transcript of the embassy bombing trial also may be
found at http://www.ict.org.il/articles/bombings.cfm
(scroll down to 'Documents')
Lockerbie: The Lockerbie report, indictment and verdict may
be found at the same site.
World Trade Center: United States v. Rahman is at the
Oklahoma Memorial site.
The appeal on the sentences is at www.tourolaw.edu/2ndCircuit/August01/99-1619.html .
Millenium bombing: a portion of the testimony of Ahmed Rassam
may be found at the pbs.org site. A full version is at findlaw.com.
World Trade Center, September 11, 2001: The indictment of
Zacaria Mousaoui for the World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001 is at
the Oklahoma Memorial site. You also might look at the United Kingdom document
on the responsibility of Al Queda, findlaw.com. This documents along with several others are at the ict documents
United States United States indictments of Osama Bin Laden
are at the Oklahoma Memorial site.
Several United States government commissions on terrorism
have issued reports. The Bremer and
Rudman Commission reports are excerpted at the pbs.org site (linked to the film
Target America). The two reports of the Gilmore Commission are available at the
Rand Corporation site. The University of Michigan site provides these reports
as well as a document issued by a committee headed by
Vice-President Albert Gore.
March 14: The World Trade Center Bombings
March 18-22: Spring Vacation
March 26 Film: Plague Wars
March 28: Film Bioterror:
There are excellent interviews, source materials and
articles on this topic on the pbs.org site linked to the Bioterror film.
Introduction: White: 239-255
Reading on nuclear weapons:
Stern: 25-30; 43-47;54—127
/ Laqueuer: 70-74; 272 / White: 240-51
Seymour Hersh, Watching the Warheads, New Yorker.com.
Anthony Cordesman , The Risks and Effects of Indirect
Covert, Terrorist and Extremist Attacks with Weapons of Mass Destruction, findlaw.com (Center for Strategic and
Anthony Cordesman et. al., The Changing Face of Terrorist
and Technology and the Challenge Of Asymmetric Warfare, www.findlaw.com
Strategic and International Studies)
Michael O'Hanlon, Beyond Missile Defense, findlaw.com
Chris Quillen, State Sponsored WMD Terrorism: A Growing
Nuclear Control Institute, Nuclear Terrorism, terrorism.com
Karl-Heniz Kamp, Nuclear Terrorism: Hysterical Concern or
Real Risk? www.terrorism.com.
The best source for information on WMD is the Federation of
American Scientists, www.fas.org
The best link is to the Nuclear Control Institute,
The Oklahoma Memorial site has a set of GAO reports on
weapons of mass destruction
Readings on biological and chemical weapons
Stern: 1-24; 31-42; 48-56; 107-127/ 163-68
Note the pbs.org site and the links. The "dark
winter" simulation exercise is detailed at the Oklahoma Memorial site.
The Sverdlovsk anthrax accident documentation is available
at the National Security Archives
The Threat of Biological Attack: Why Concern Now? (Potomac
The John Hopkins section on findlaw.com has reports of
simulated anthrax and smallpox attack exercises
Peter Boyer, The Ames Strain, New Yorker.com.
Laqueur: 74-78; 262-63
The Federal of American Scientists has devoted a portion of
their site to "infowar." http://www.fas.org
Geoffrey French, Information Warfare (click on analysis)
The Oklahoma Memorial site features a number of reports on
cyber-terrorism and homeland defense
Readings on agro-terrorism may be found at the Oklahoma
Articles of general relevance:
Paul Wilkinson, Security & Terrorism In the 21st
Century: The Changing International Terrorist Threat (1996) (St. Andrews site
linked at the erri Counter-Terrorism archive)
Steve Bowman and Helit Barel, Weapons of Mass
Destruction-The Terrorist Threat (Congressional Research Service), findlaw.com
William Perry and Ashton Carter, findlaw.com (Hoover
Institute, click on homeland defense).
There are various articles available on www.foreignaffairs.org/home/terrorism.asp and on the Atlantic Monthly site.
You may want to consult the State Department International
Information Program and University of Michigan sites.
Yael Shahar, Tracing Bin Laden's Money Easier Said Than
John Horgan and Max Taylor, Playing the Green Card-Financing
the Provisional IRA," Terrorism & Political Violence (1999) (St.
Andrews Site) (linked at erri Counter-Terrorism Archive)
The relevant executive orders on financing terrorism may be
found at findlaw.com (click on financial markets)
Reyko Huang, The Financial War Against terrorism, http://www.cid.org
International Money Laundering Network, www.imolin.org.
The State Department International Information Program and
University of Michigan sites also are helpful.
Reyko Huang, Drugs in the Anti-Terrorism Campaign, http://www.cdi.org
State Department Narcotics Control Reports, www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/nrcpt
The Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime, has
a unit devoted to victims of terrorism, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/welcovc/tivu.html
. Consult the Department of Justice, usdoj.gov, for the compensation scheme for
the victims of September 11, 2001.
Findlaw.com carries Rein v. Libya (1996/1998) concerning the
liability of foreign government's for
acts of terrorism in American courts.
Humanitarian Project v. Reno addresses whether donations to
a group designated as a terrorist organization may be prohibited under the
People's Mojahedin v. United States sketches the procedure for
declaring a group as a terrorist organization under United States law.
We will discuss a number of issues involving the financing
of terrorism and the compensation of victims.
Is it feasible to frustrate the flow of money? What mechanisms are
available to compensate victims and
Assignment X: Discuss the balance between national security
and civil liberties drawing upon the readings and the material covered in class
. Illustrate your answer with several examples. You may concentrate on a single
issue. (April 4-April 18) (10 points/three pages). Due April 23.
April 9: Terrorism
Prosecutions, Military Commissions,
Treason Prosecutions, Lawyer/Client Privilege, Extradition & Abduction
Findlaw.com (click on military commissions) has a
comprehensive set of documents on military commissions and prosecutions.
The indictment of Zacarias Moussaoui is on the Oklahoma
Memorial site. www.mipt
The Department of State International Information Program
and University of Michigan sites contain virtually all of the relevant
The documents and transcripts in the prosecutions of John
Walker, Richard Reid and other unnamed suspects have yet to be posted. The
complaint against Richard Reid is available on Findlaw.com and other sites.
There are a range of issues concerning the balance between
due process and national security in terrorism trials which will be discussed.
Detentions, Hate Crimes, and law investigative techniques
following September 11, 2001
The Palmer Raids (World War I)
United States v. Korematsu (World War II)
Detentions/consent interviews/preventive detentions of
non-citizens/deportations/limitations on access to information/ domestic
surveillance/militerization of domestic security
Several civil liberties organizations have detailed
discussions of domestic investigative
procedures (see April 16th). You
also might consult The Lawyers' Committee for Human Rights, Since September 11th:
A Chronology of the Government’s Restrictions
on Civil Liberties
Findlaw.com features a set of documents on hate crimes
Further discussion of the balance between national security
and equal protection.
Anti-Terrorist Legislation in America & Abroad
The Patriotism Act is on the Oklahoma City Memorial site
David Cole is an outspoken critic of
the newly instituted policy towards non-citizens resident in the United
. David Cole also is written on the Patriot Act, see, Terrorizing The
Constitution, terrorism.org www.mipt
The Electronic Frontier Foundation archived various articles
on electronic surveillance under the Patriotism Act, http://www.eff.org/Censorship/Terrorism_militias
The Center for Democracy and Technology:
Electronic Privacy Information
The Nation Magazine page of September 11, 2001 contains
various articles and links.
Amy Balch et. al. Security With Liberty is a good
. You also may want to consider the Nation's cache of articles on patriotism.
Liberties in the Classroom and on Campus
Report of the Council of Trustees and Alumni, www.goata.org . You may want to examine
another self-proclaimed conservative organization, Accuracy in Academia www.academia.org .
Mark Singer, I Pledge Allegiance, New Yorker
Relevant documents also might be found at the Department of
State International Information Program and University of Michigan sites.
Several organizations provide detailed commentaries on civil
liberties and the war on terrorism. The American Civil Liberties Union, www.aclu.org
; the Cato institute, www.cato.org .
Center For Democracy and Technology, www.cdt.org/security/010911response.shtml and the Constitutional Rights Foundation, http://www.crf~usa.org . Amnesty
InternationalUSA and Human Rights Watch also post material on civil liberties.
Anti-terrorist legislation has expanded the investigative
authority of law enforcement officials to investigate terrorism. Have these
measures impinged on civil liberties? How do we balance the need for security
with the protection of civil liberties? What types of procedures have been
Implemented in other countries? What issues have arisen
concerning civil liberties in the classroom and on campus?
Defense: Aviation Security and Counter-Terrorist Technology
The Aviation and Transportation Security Act, 2001 is on the
Oklahoma site. www.mipt.org
Findlaw.com features a comprehensive set of documents (click
on aviation security) as well as a set of cases on airline security.
Malcolm Gladwell, Safety in the Skies, NewYorker.com.
Air transportation is central to domestic and international
commerce and to the economic life of the United States. What is the nature of
the threat? Consider the issues which
arise in securing the safety of passengers, crew and aircraft? How much of a risk should society accept?