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Teaching & Understanding Sept 11 Mark Hamm & Paul Leighton

Violence: Terrorism and America

Rebecca Maniglia & Matthew Lippman, University of Illinois - Chicago

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Web Intro ~ Contents ~ Photo ~ Printable .txt version

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Webmaster/Publisher's note: This is an amazing syllabus. The links to the right provide shortcuts to some, but not all topics covered in the document. Some editing has been done to shorten the length of the webpage, but the printable text has the complete version. 

The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Department of Justice organized this course on terrorism in response to the events of September 11, 2001.

The class has two primary aspirations. First, to present the fundamental concepts, theories,  background and information pertaining to terrorism. Secondly, to highlight the contemporary issues and challenges which confront the United States, global community and individuals.  The course will stress individual initiative, research and expression.

There is an impressive amount of information on terrorism on the web. There are various sites which might prove helpful. These (and others) typically are linked.  You should consult a search engine to locate additional addresses.

American Society of International law 

Center for Strategic Education

Terrorism Research Center www.terrorism.com

Suggested Links & Reading
Philosophical Perspective
Suicide bombers
Bin Laden
Psychology: The Political Terrorist
Religion and Terrorism
History & Definitions
The New Terrorism
"Failed" and "Rogue" States
A Critique of US Intervention in Afghanistan

Contemporary Context
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Cyber & Narco terrorism
Assisting and Compensating Victims
Terrorism Prosecutions
Civil Liberties in the Classroom and on Campus
Aviation Security and Counter-Terrorist Technology

Centre for the Study of Terrorism-University of St. Andrews

ERRI Counter-Terrorism Archive,  http://www.emergency.cntrterr.com  helpful links

Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org

International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, www.ict.org.il 

War on Terrorism, www.yama333tripod.com . See also www.dmoz.org and http://www.bcr.org/%7Emsauers/wtc.html

National Security Institute, www.nsi.org

Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute, www.mipt.org see also the Terrorism Knowledge Base http://www.tkb.org/Home.jsp

Public Broadcasting System, www.pbs.org 

Rand Corporation, www.rand.org 

South Asia Terrorism Portal, www.etown.edu/vl/asia.html 

United States Institute of Peace, www.usip.org/ 

Anser Institute for Home Land Security, www.homelandsecurity.org 

 ***The best sites for documents:

University of Michigan Documents Center: American's War On Terrorism

United States Department of State International Information Program (this new site has a  comprehensive set of links), http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/terror


United Nations, http://un.org/terrorism

 ***An encyclopedia of terrorism: http://terrorismfiles.org


Walter Laqueur, The New Terrorism (Oxford; 1999) Well-written coverage of the changing nature of international terrorism.

Jessica Stern, The Ultimate Terrorists (Harvard; 1999) An introduction to the looming threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Jonathan R. White, Terrorism: An Introduction (Wadsworth; 2002) A solid text which should be utilized as a basic reference tool.

 The rapid unfolding of events necessitates supplementing these texts with articles and reports on the internet. We have attempted to provide you with sources ranging from the elemental to the esoteric. The White volume also is integrated with http://infotrac.thomsonlearning.com. The password accompanies the book. This site is awkwardly organized, but provides articles and links on a wide-range of topics. We have found the site to be uneven in quality, but encourage you consult this resource. Relevant material also will be distributed in class.  The pertinent  internet sites post material on a daily basis and there undoubtedly are significant articles and documents which have not been included on the syllabus.  You should feel free to supplement the reading and to call pertinent essays and sites to our attention.

Philosophical Perspective

The fluidity of the current crisis necessitates an elastic and flexible approach to the course. We anticipate that the class schedule, readings and assignments may be altered or modified in response to unfolding events. 

 We are committed to creating a "learning community. " Your assistance is encouraged in arranging  speakers, films and in organizing class projects. The podium is open to all serious points of view which  advance the class by providing insight into relevant issues. You also will have the opportunity to participate in a listserv with students in the Middle East who will provide suggested readings and alternative perspectives.

The course is a survey of pertinent issues. An investigation of terrorism is necessarily inter- disciplinary and a complete coverage would entails a broad examination of the socio-economic,  political and cultural structures of global society. We have attempted to strike a balance  between a broad and narrow approach. Some of you may find the course constrained and cramped; others broad and amorphous.

This topic is fraught with issues and concerns which may offend cultural and religious  sensitivities. The very choice and organization of topics reflects our biases and points of view.  We would ask that you exercise a welcoming and sensitive approach to the perspectives presented and expressed.  Please approach us with your concerns.

Our approach is to aspire to be neutral and objective in the presentation of the material. We are committed to provoking thought and reflection and our comments should not be viewed as reflecting our personal views.  At the same time, you will be evaluated on the quality and logic of your work regardless of your personal or political perspective.

(Tentative) Class Schedule

Week I: January 8: Introduction

Andrew Sullivan, This Is What A Day Means, New York Times Magazine and Why Did It Have To Be A Perfect Day? Sunday Times of London, www.andrewsullivan.com . Please also consult Portraits In Grief, New York Times (available on the web)

This brief assignment is intended to provoke reflection and thought on the impact of the events of September 11, 2001. How has your life been altered? Your sense of security and well-being? Image and perception of the United States and the world? The New York Times has compiled  biographical notes.

Peruse these descriptions and find three people you find particularly compelling. Why do you identify with these individuals? What is your reaction to the biographical sketches? I would like some these essays to be read in class.  Those of you who feel comfortable with this are invited to submit an additional copy of your essay on which your name does not appear. This anonymous paper then will be read to the class by a colleague.

You also might want to tour the Oklahoma City National Memorial, http://oklahomacitynationalmemorial.org

Assignment I: September 11, 2001. Write an essay reflecting your personal reactions to the events of September 11, 2001. Andrew Sullivan's articles might provoke thought. In addition, discuss three people appearing in portraits of grief. 

January 10: Suicide bombers/religious & political martyrs

Laqueuer: 93-94; 100-01; 134-138; 139-42; 140-51; 191-96 / Stern: 84-85 / White: 97-100; 135-151; 154-161; 199-202;

Joseph Lelyveld, All Suicide Bombers Are Not Alike, NYT Magazine (available on the web)

Ehud Sprinzak,  Rational Fanatics, Foreign Policy (available at the Foreign Policy site)

John Daly, Suicide bombing: no warning, and no total solution,  Jane's Terrorism & Security Monitor. 

Sri Lanka: Suicide Bombers Ultimate Sacrifice, Far Eastern Economic June 1, 2000 (available on the web).  The views of Palestinian Psychiatrist Dr. Eyad Sarraj also may be Of interest, Why We Have Become Suicide Bombers, http://www.middleeast.org .  An informative essay is Nasar  Hasssan, An Arsenal of Believers, The New Yorker, http://www.newyorker.com

Essays on suicide bombers by Yoram Schweitzer, Boaz Ganor and Reuven Paz may be found  at http://www.ict.org.il/articles/A full documentation of Tamil Tiger attacks

A simple, but solid introduction to Islam is on PBS.Org (click on Empire of Faith). Those of you interested in women in the Middle East and Asia would be interested in the film, The Circle; consult http://rawa.org  for information on Afghan women.

Does the phrase "suicide bomber" reflect a bias? What is the historical precedent for suicidal  behavior by terrorists? Are there conditions which encourage "suicide bombers?" Can this conduct be deterred or discouraged? What are the tactical advantages and disadvantages of suicide bombings? Are suicide bombers courageous martyrs or mad and maniacal? Do suicide bombers differ from other terrorists? What does this indicate concerning the nature of contemporary terrorism?

Assignment II. Suicide Bombers: Martyrs or Misfits? What motivates these individuals? Are they  devoted political activists, religious martyrs,  confused and aimless individuals or mentally deranged? What does this indicate concerning the nature of contemporary terrorism? How can this be combated? (8 points/three pages) Due on January 24, 2002.

January 17: Film: One Day In September (Olympics)

1936 Berlin Olympic Games, http://www.ushmm.org/olympics (take an on-line tour of an exhibit on the 1936 Olympics)

1972 Munich Olympic Games

 White, 140-145

This Academy Award winning film is a companion to Simon Reeve, One Day In September.  reflect on the characteristics and context of this attack. The film also analyzes the response of various States and the international community and the reverberations of the assault on the victims, their families and on the perpetrators.  The Battle of Algiers is recommended for  further insights into terrorism.

Assignment III: Let the Games Begin? Why were the Munich Olympics targeted for terrorist  attack? What was the impact? How did the German and Israeli governments react? What was the response of the international community ? Were the terrorists bought to "justice?" Should the Olympics have been (briefly) suspended  or cancelled? What was the aftermath? 

January 22: The Language of Terrorism

January 24:  Film: In Search of Bin Laden

White:  162-67.

PBS has provided background material on Osama Bin Laden (search under Frontline/In Search of Bin Laden).  The site for Looking for Answers/Frontline on Pbs.org  has an excellent collection of materials on Osama Bin Laden and Al Queda. Other articles worth examining include Mary Anne Weaver, Blowback , Atlantic Monthly (links). Mary Anne Weaver also has a good biographical essay on Bin Laden on the New Yorker site, Mary Anne Weaver, The Real Bin Laden, Newyorker.com. Bernard Lewis, The Roots of Muslim Rage Atlantic Monthly (links). Also see Bernard Lewis' valuable essay, The Revolt of Islam, The New Yorker, Newyorker.com. (more on bin Laden from this site)

You will find a wide selection of informative articles on the Atlantic Monthly and New Yorker sites. You also might want to peruse Bernard Lewis, License To Kill, Foreign Affairs (Nov/Dec 1998); Jessica Stern, Pakistan's Jihad Culture, Foreign Affairs

The Rand Review has a special issue on religious terrorism with an essay by Bruce Hoffman. Rand.org

The best analysis of Bin Laden's  philosophy is the recently published essay by Micahel Doran, Understand the Enemy (Foreign Affairs, Jan./Feb. 2002).

Two of Bin Laden's Fatwas are available on the Washington Post site (click on America At War and search under Bin Laden's Fatwas).  Ladenese Epistle: Declaration of War (parts I, III). You also might examine relevant portions of the transcript released on September 13, 2001which is available at most newspaper sites and at findlaw.com.  A CIA analysis of Bin Laden is available on the National Security Archives, a site devoted to providing original documents to  researchers.

An interview with Bin Laden by the al Jazeera television station may be found at the site of the Terrorism Research Center, http://www.terrorism.com. You might find it interesting to examine the speeches of  President George Bush. Several of the President's more important statements are available at Findlaw.com (War on Terrorism) and on various government sites; the Center for Strategic Education at the Johns Hopkins School of International Service links to a site organized by Gary Price at George Washington University which has a good selection of statements by governmental officials. Sais is an excellent site for links to agencies and domestic and foreign newspapers. 

A comprehensive compilation of documents and commentaries relating to Osama Bin Laden is at the International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, http://www.ict.org . One unique document is Bin Laden's farewell message, "Usama Bin Laden's Message for the Youth of the Muslim Ummah," http://www.ict.org.il/spotlight/def.cfm?id=716 .  The Department of State International Information Program and University of Michigan sites also are helpful. The  Michigan site has an  interview with Mullah Omar. You also might be interested in Reuven Paz, Programmed Terrorists, An Analysis of the Letter Left Behind by the September 11 Hijackers.

 The charters of a number of terrorist groups may be found at http://www.ict.org.il/ > International Terrorism > Profiles. 

C.J.M. Drake, The Role Of Ideology In Terrorist's Target Selection, Terrorism & Political Violence

We will examine the background and public statements of Osama Bin Laden and relate terrorist ideology to terrorist targets, tactics and strategies. Is language revealing of terrorist intent and aspiration? What is the role of rhetoric in terrorists' political strategy? Is there a connection between ideology, language and terrorist targets? What of terrorists who do not reveal their identity or goals?  How is language tailored to the audience? Are the aspirations and nature of terrorism changing?

Assignment IV: The Language of Terrorism: Rhetoric or Revealing? Discuss the background and ideology of Osama Bin Ladin. How does he employ language as a political strategy? Does Bin Laden's rhetoric differ from other terrorists?

January 29: Psychology : The "Lone Wolf"

Read the case file on the "Unabomber," Ted Kaczynski at www.courttv.com  (famous cases). Focus  on the psychological evaluation and skim his essay on technology and the trial testimony. You also might consult, unabombertrial.com.  Is Ted Kaczynski emblematic of "lone wolf" terrorists committed to a "single issue?" What are Ted Koyznski's defining characteristics? Compare Ted Kaczynski to Sirhan Sirhan, John Hinckley,  Lee Harvey Oswald and to other assassins. As a matter of interest you may want to peruse the (unrelated) materials on the Symbionese Liberation Army (trial of Sara Jane Olson) which is available on this site.

Psychology: The Political Terrorist

Laqueuer: 79-105 / Stern:  69-86 / White:  18-44

Examine the brief article by Connor Cruise O'Brien, Thinking About Terrorism, PBS.Org (Target America).  An interesting essay is Nicholas Lemann, What Terrorists Want, New Yorker.com. You may want to read the Al Queda military manual, http://www.mipt.org . (library). Also  available at findlaw.com. For some skeptical views on the value of psychological analysis read  an essay by the former Director of Counter-Terrorism at the United States Department of State, www.whyfiles.org/140terror_psych/ . You also might want to examine an interview with Clark  McCauley Director of the Asch Center at the University of Pennsylvania

Return to the Pbs.org site for the film Hunting Bin Laden and read the material on Wadih El Hage. The site for the film, Saudi Time Bomb, provides additional material on Faroun Hazul. The University of Michigan documentation center provides descriptions of (click on suspects) some of the perpetrators of  the September 11, 2001, you might be interested in reading about Ayman Al-Zawahri and Loft Raissi. We will devote some attention to Mohammed Ata, this material is compiled at the University of Michigan site.  There also likely will be some discussion of the Baader Meinhoff Gang in Germany, http://www.baader-meinhof.com/ . This group is well-covered in White, 175-178.

In weeks four and five we will consider the psychology of the terrorist and the merits of some prevailing theories and the distinctions between terrorists. Consider whether psychology is a useful analytical approach to understanding terrorism.  Are terrorists distinct from common criminals? From political activists? Can we generalize about the psychological profile of terrorists?  Are terrorists rational political actors? What is the source of data on terrorists? How does the analysis of terrorists influence the approach of courts, prisons and the police?

Assignment V: Profiling the Psychology of Terrorists. Detail the various views concerning the psychological profile of terrorists. Can psychology contribute to the study of terrorism?  Might psychology obscure socio-economic and political motivations? Are terrorists merely "normal"  individuals with strong and sustaining views?  Rational political actors whose actions are predictable and can be deterred? Are they distinct from common criminals? Should the criminal justice system treat terrorists as ordinary criminals, political offenders, prisoners of war or mentally challenged? Integrate the material from January 31st and February 5th into your essay. You may choose to paint a portrait of a particular terrorist or terrorist group. Also note that the victim impact statements in the trial of Ted Kacynski raise some profound issues  concerning the justifiability of terrorism. 

January 31: Film. Trail Of A Terrorist

This film details the motives and methodologies Ahmed Ressam, the "millennium bomber."  What is the underlying message of the film in regards to Ahmed Ressam?  Also available from PBS is the film The Terrorist Network. A&E has recently produced films on Osama Bin Laden and the September 11 perpetrators which I am able to make available.

Read the background material accompanying the film at Pbs.org. Note Ressam's trial testimony.

You may want to examine the FBI site for the most wanted "terrorists." http://www.fbi.gov

February 5: "Super-Terrorists"

Laqueur: 190-209 / White: 221-36. You may also want to examine 204-19

Ehud Sprinzak, The Great Superterrorism Scare, Foreign Policy  & Ehud Spinzak, The Lone Gunmen, Foreign Policy, http://www.foreignpolicy.com .  Review the materials relating to the Oklahoma City Bombing Trial, Courttv.com (famous cases). You will find a  selection of material on the Oklahoma Memorial site, http://www.mipt.org . The Thomson Learning site also

contains a number of articles on the trial, many of which consider the justifiability of the death penalty and whether the execution of Timothy McVeigh should have been televised. You might take an on-line tour of the Oklahoma Memorial. Consider the debate around the execution of Timothy McVeign and what it reveals about attitudes towards terrorism.

February 7: Looking For Answers

The Pbs.org. site has essays on Saudi Arabia, Egypt  and United States intelligence. Consider the four essays which discuss a structural and cultural approach to the causes of unrest and terrorism: Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations (Foreign Affairs and book excerpt); Bernard Lewis, The Roots of Muslim Rage  and Edward Said, The Clash of Ignorance.

A regional perspective on terrorism is available from the South Asia Terrorism Portal, http://www..icm-satp.com/

The next three classes will examine trends and developments in the Islamic world, particularly in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, two countries closely allied to the United States. Why were a disproportionate number of individuals involved in the September 11, 2001 incident and major figures in Al Queda from these two countries? We will be exploring the contention that there is a close correlation between strong religious belief and terrorism. In analyzing this question we will look at the Japanese group, Aum Sinrikyo and various Islamic terrorists .

Assignment VI: Saudi Arabia, Egypt And September 11, 2001.  Read the articles on Saudi Arabia and Egypt  and consider the contending causes of unrest and terrorism. Is the argument that there is a relationship between strong religious commitments and terrorism overly  simplistic?  Also consider the material discussed on February 12 along with the film Saudi Time Bomb. Why did a disproportionate number of the perpetrators of the events of September 11, 2001 come from Saudi Arabia? What accounts for the fact that many of the major figures in Al Queda are from Egypt? 

February 12: Religion and Terrorism

Aum Shinrikyo: Stern 60-68 / Laqueur:  254—82 / White: 240-42

Research Planning Inc. Aum Shinrkyo: Once and Future Threat, findlaw.com Rueven Paz,  programmed Terrorists (letter of Sept. 11, 2001), http://ict.org.il

White: 46-61; 152-170 / Laqueur: 81-90

Bruce Hoffman, Old Madness, New Methods: Revival of Religious Terrorism Begs for Broadening U.S. Policy (Rand Corporation), findlaw.com Anthony Cordesman et. al. , Islamic Extremism in Saudi Arabia and the Attack on Al Khobar (Center for Strategic and International Studies), findlaw.com Magnus Ranstorp, Terrorism In The Name of Religion (St. Andrews link at  ERRI site).

Andrew Sullivan, This Is A Religious War, New York Times Magazine, Andrewsullivan.com Jessica Stern, Pakistan's Jihad Culture (Foreign Affairs site).

February 14: Saudi Time Bomb

Reading: Read the material on the PBS.Org site.

*The film Kandahar is at the Music Box Theater for several days, beginning February 15th. You may want to consult www.rawa.org for information on women in Afghanistan.

February 19 & 21: Terrorism: History, Definitions & Trends

Laqueuer: 8-48 / Stern: 1-10; 69-86 / White: 3-17; 63-77;

Paul Wilkinson, the Strategic Implications of Terrorism, Center for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, St. Andrews University, Scotland

Review the Counter-Terrorism Office, http://www.stategov./s/ct/ . Boaz Ganor, Terrorism: No Prohibition Without Definition, ict.org. You also might examine Findl.law.com and peruse the Federal Bureau of Investigation terrorist threat assessment. Pbs.org (Target America) has excerpts from the Congressional Research Service report, Terrorism, the Future and U.S. Foreign Policy (2001). Also, on the same site, note the National Commission on Terrorism, Countering the Changing Threat of International Terrorism.

A number of sites have data on terrorist incidents (eg. ict, erri, ).  A catalogue of terrorist incidents is provided on the State Department International Information Program page. The Michigan site is a useful resource for documents on threat assessment.

The New Terrorism

Ian Lesser et. al. Countering The New Terrorism, http://www.rand.org/ (introduction)

Anthony Cordesman et. al. The Changing Face Of Terrorism And Technology, Findlaw.com (Center for Strategic and International Studies)

Paul Pillar, Terrorism Goes Global: Extremist Groups Extend Their Global Reach, Findlaw.com (Brookings)

Neal A. Pollard, What is the Future of Terrorism, www.terrorism.com

Next-Generation Terrorism Analysis, www.terrorism.com

Lynne Fischer, The Threat of Domestic Terrorism, terrorism.com

Steven Sloan, How Vulnerable is the U.S., terrorism.com

John Arquill and David, Ronfeldt, Networks And Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime and Military, www.rand.org 

We will trace the history and incidence of terrorism and analyze various definitions and historical documents.  Contemporary terrorism should be viewed as the accumulation of tactics, strategies and weapons developed over various historical epochs.  How has the nature of  terrorism differed in various historical periods? What accounts for the differences in the  definitions of terrorism?  What are the trends in terrorism? Does September 11, 2001 mark a significant shift?

Assignment VII: What issues arise in defining terrorism?  Discuss the distinguishing  characteristics of the "new terrorism." Are there continuities with the past?  What types of  terrorist activity can we anticipate in the future? Consider which strategies might be deployed to  curb terrorism?

February 26: Film. Ambush In Mogadishu. 

This film discusses United States armed intervention in Somalia and illustrates the perils of  military deployment. Some of you may have read the book Black Hawk Down by Mark Bowden  and/or have viewed the Hollywood film.

On asymmetrical warfare consider The Estimate: Mismatch Between Israel and Palestinian Tactics is a Classic Case of the Problems Of Asymmetric Warfare, findlaw.com. There are three  articles on the United  States Army link on findlaw.com,, the best is Back to the Future with Asymmetric Warfare. There also is a statement by former Secretary of Defense William Perry.

Findlaw.com. An excellent discussion of the changing nature of warfare is on the PBS.Org site , The Future of Warfare.

You also may be interested in the intelligence dimension. Findl.law.com provides several documents from the Central Intelligence Agency.  Consider the readings on United States intelligence accompanying the film  by Paul Pillar, Loch Johnson, Marc Gerecht, Seymour Hersh, Richard Betts.

What are the justifications and risks of military intervention against terrorism? Consider the legal norms and standards governing military deployment and the utilization of armed force? How  should the United States address the threat posed by "failed" and "rogue" States?

Assignment VIII: This film raises the issue of the constraints and conditions for United States military intervention abroad. What policy should be followed against the threat posed by "failed" and "rogue" States? Read the articles accompanying the film.  In the discussion you should  consider the perspectives discussed on February 28th. You may want to write on the change in the nature of warfare necessitated by the war of terrorism or on the issues confronting the  media in covering the war on terrorism discussed on March 5th

February 28: State Terrorism: Military Intervention in Afghanistan and "Failed" and "Rogue"  States: Military Force Under International Law

Laqueur: 157-183

Frederic L. Kirgis and other scholars discuss the United States right of self-defense under international law in Afghanistan, www.asil.org  (click on analysis). This site has an excellent  inventory of electronic resources. You will find the relevant sections of the United Nations Charter and various international conventions. In particular, pay attention to Articles 2(4) and 51 and the provisions of the Charter pertaining to the role of the Security Council in addressing threats to the peace.(Chapter VII). You also might consult the Crimes of War Project,  http://crimesofwar.org . (see the interview with military officials on the law of terrorism). There are occasional relevant essays on http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/terrorism.htm .

Human Rights Watch has an excellent summary of humanitarian law (Q & A on humanitarian law). You may want to examine the Presidential Directives setting forth United States foreign policy towards terrorism, find.law.com (under Presidential Directives see documents 21,6 & 8). The United Kingdom documentation of Al Queda's responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Towers also is available at findlaw.com. The War Powers Resolution and Article Five of the NATO Treaty are on the Oklahoma City Memorial site.

Also consult the State Department Information Program and the University of Michigan

Thomas Hunter, The Use of Force in Response to Terrorism,  terrorism.com

Hoover Institute, International Relations the Next Threat, Findlaw.com (click on Afghanistan)

The United Nations provides relevant international documents on terrorism, http://un.org/terorism  and a wide-range of documents.

State Terrorism: A Critique of United States Intervention in Afghanistan and War on Terrorism

Human Rights Watch (Q & A on humanitarian law; crimes against humanity). You also might generally peruse the Amnesty International site. One of the most interesting critics of United States policy is Indian author and novelist Arundhati Roy. You can read The Algebra Of Infinite Justice and Brutality Smeared In  Peanut Butter. One of the most outspoken domestic critics is Noam Chomsky.  A number of his essays and interviews on 9/11 are  available on the web. Links to articles and sites with material critical of the Afghan intervention and the United States military effort to combat terrorism. For speculation on future United States military interventions and the debate within the United States government you might consult Seymour Hersh, The Iraq Hawks, New Yorker.com. You also may want to research the human rights record of some of the United States' allies in the Afghan intervention at the Department of State's Human Rights Reports.

March 5: Media

White:  256-66 / Laqueur: 43-45

Brian Houghton and Neal A. Pollard, The Media and Terrorism, terrorism.org

Paul Wilkinson, The Media and Terror: A Reassessment, Terrorism & Political Violence (1997), Centre for the Study of Terrorism,  (linked at ERRI Counter-Terrorism Archive).

Dr. Ehsan Ahari, Al Jazeera's Unwitting Role in the 'Unrestricted' Afghan War (Center for Defense Information), http://www.cdi.org

A liberal organization devoted to constructive commentary and criticism of media bias is www.Fair.org. Accuracy in Media is a conservative group with the same purpose, www.aim.org .

The Committee to Protect Journalists is a most important and interesting site for media  coverage of war, http://www.cpj.org/

Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press occasionally carries relevant essays,  http://www.rcfp.org/

The media is integral to the tactics and strategies of terrorism. How should journalists balance the right to know" against the interests of national security? Has the coverage of the war on terrorism been fair and full? Are there structural constraints and impediments to reporting? What issues arise in media coverage of terrorism and armed conflict?

March 7: Film: Target America

The reading accompanying the film, Pbs.org, provides a time-line of terrorist attacks against the United States, interviews with government officials and several articles (Richard Betts, Ashton Carter et. al., Paul Pillar, Lawrence Kaplan, Hendrik Hertzberg and Philip Wilcox). Another informative essay is Anthony Cordesman, Homeland Defense: The Current and Future Terrorist Threat, findlaw.com (Center for International and Strategic Studies)

We will be sketching contemporary terrorist attacks on the United States. Consider the causes, consequences and continuities of these shootings and bombings?  What is the nature of the threat confronting the United States?

We will be focusing on the embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya

Assignment IX:  Discuss the recent series of terrorist attacks on the United States as detailed in the film, Target America, the accompanying readings and in class.  Is it accurate to view the United States as confronting a terrorist challenge to the country's safety and security?   What of the prospect of the deployment of a WMD, particularly a biological weapons ? Consider the material presented in the readings and classes of March 12-March 28 and  April 9 

March 12: The Contemporary Context: CIA Headquarters, Khobar Towers,  Lockerbie,  the United States Cole, Tanzania and Kenya Embassy Millenium Bombings

The State Department International Information Program and the University of Michigan Documentation Center provide comprehensive sets of documents and commentaries on these events.

CIA Shootings: The decision in the case of  Aimal Kasi convicted of the 1988 shooting at the CIA Headquarters in Langley Virginia may be found at the Oklahoma Memorial site.

Khobar Towers: A Congressional Research Service report on Khobar Towers is at findlaw.com.  You can read the report of Secretary of Defense William Cohen, www.defenselink.mil/pubs/khobar .

The indictment is found at find.law.com (click on prior cases).

The United States Cole. The report of the commission which investigated the bombing of the United States Cole in Yemen may be found at the Oklahoma Memorial site. You also might examine several Congressional Research Service reports on this incident, findlaw.com.  Yahoo provides a news summary of these attacks.

Embassy Bombings: 

A Congressional Research Service report on the Tanzania and Kenya Embassy bombings is at findlaw.com.  You will find the transcript and sentencing in the embassy bombing trial at findlaw.com (click on background prior cases).  The site also provides the indictment of El-Hage. The report of the Accountabilty Review Board is available at the site of the Terrorism Research Center.

The transcript of the embassy bombing trial also may be found at http://www.ict.org.il/articles/bombings.cfm (scroll down to 'Documents')

Lockerbie: The Lockerbie report, indictment and verdict may be found at the same site.

World Trade Center: United States v. Rahman is at the Oklahoma Memorial site.

The appeal on the sentences is at www.tourolaw.edu/2ndCircuit/August01/99-1619.html  .

Millenium bombing: a portion of the testimony of Ahmed Rassam may be found at the pbs.org site. A full version is at findlaw.com.

World Trade Center, September 11, 2001: The indictment of Zacaria Mousaoui for the World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001 is at the Oklahoma Memorial site. You also might look at the United Kingdom document on the responsibility of Al Queda, findlaw.com. This  documents along with several others are at the ict documents site.

United States United States indictments of Osama Bin Laden are at the Oklahoma Memorial  site.

Several United States government commissions on terrorism have issued reports. The Bremer  and Rudman Commission reports are excerpted at the pbs.org site (linked to the film Target America). The two reports of the Gilmore Commission are available at the Rand Corporation site. The University of Michigan site provides these reports as well as a document issued by a committee headed by Vice-President Albert Gore.

March 14: The World Trade Center Bombings

March 18-22: Spring Vacation

March  26  Film: Plague Wars

March 28: Film Bioterror:

There are excellent interviews, source materials and articles on this topic on the pbs.org site linked to the Bioterror film.

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Introduction: White: 239-255

Reading on nuclear weapons: 

Stern: 25-30; 43-47;54—127 / Laqueuer: 70-74; 272 / White: 240-51

Seymour Hersh, Watching the Warheads, New Yorker.com.

Anthony Cordesman , The Risks and Effects of Indirect Covert, Terrorist and Extremist Attacks with Weapons of Mass Destruction,  findlaw.com (Center for Strategic and International Studies)

Anthony Cordesman et. al., The Changing Face of Terrorist and Technology and the Challenge Of Asymmetric Warfare, www.findlaw.com  (Center for Strategic and International Studies)

Michael O'Hanlon, Beyond Missile Defense, findlaw.com (Brookings), findlaw.com

Chris Quillen, State Sponsored WMD Terrorism: A Growing Threat, terrorism.com

Nuclear Control Institute, Nuclear Terrorism, terrorism.com

Karl-Heniz Kamp, Nuclear Terrorism: Hysterical Concern or Real Risk? www.terrorism.com

The best source for information on WMD is the Federation of American Scientists, www.fas.org 

The best link is to the Nuclear Control Institute, http://www.nci.org/nuketerror.htm

The Oklahoma Memorial site has a set of GAO reports on weapons of mass destruction

Readings on biological and chemical weapons

Stern: 1-24; 31-42; 48-56; 107-127/ 163-68

Note the pbs.org site and the links. The "dark winter" simulation exercise is detailed at the Oklahoma Memorial site.

The Sverdlovsk anthrax accident documentation is available at the National Security Archives

The Threat of Biological Attack: Why Concern Now? (Potomac Institute), findlaw.com

The John Hopkins section on findlaw.com has reports of simulated anthrax and smallpox attack exercises

Peter Boyer, The Ames Strain, New Yorker.com.

Readings on cyber-terrorism:

Laqueur: 74-78; 262-63

The Federal of American Scientists has devoted a portion of their site to "infowar."  http://www.fas.org

Geoffrey French, Information Warfare (click on analysis) www.terrorism.org 

The Oklahoma Memorial site features a number of reports on cyber-terrorism and homeland defense

Readings on agro-terrorism may be found at the Oklahoma Memorial site.

Articles of general relevance:

Paul Wilkinson, Security & Terrorism In the 21st Century: The Changing International Terrorist Threat (1996) (St. Andrews site linked at the erri Counter-Terrorism archive)

Steve Bowman and Helit Barel, Weapons of Mass Destruction-The Terrorist Threat (Congressional Research Service), findlaw.com

William Perry and Ashton Carter, findlaw.com (Hoover Institute, click on homeland defense).

There are various articles available on www.foreignaffairs.org/home/terrorism.asp  and on the Atlantic Monthly site.

You may want to consult the State Department International Information Program and University of Michigan sites.

April 4: Financing Terrorism

Yael Shahar, Tracing Bin Laden's Money Easier Said Than Done, ict.org

John Horgan and Max Taylor, Playing the Green Card-Financing the Provisional IRA," Terrorism & Political Violence (1999) (St. Andrews Site) (linked at erri Counter-Terrorism Archive)

The relevant executive orders on financing terrorism may be found at findlaw.com (click on financial markets)

Reyko Huang, The Financial War Against terrorism, http://www.cid.org

International Money Laundering Network, www.imolin.org.

The State Department International Information Program and University of Michigan sites also are helpful.


Laqueur: 210-225

www.narcoterror.org  (links)

Reyko Huang, Drugs in the Anti-Terrorism Campaign, http://www.cdi.org

State Department Narcotics Control Reports, www.state.gov/g/inl/rls/nrcpt

Assisting and Compensating Victims.

The Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime, has a unit devoted to victims of terrorism, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/welcovc/tivu.html . Consult the Department of Justice, usdoj.gov, for the compensation scheme for the victims of September 11, 2001.

Findlaw.com carries Rein v. Libya (1996/1998) concerning the liability of foreign government's  for acts of terrorism in American courts.

Humanitarian Project v. Reno addresses whether donations to a group designated as a terrorist organization may be prohibited under the First Amendment.

People's Mojahedin v. United States sketches the procedure for declaring a group as a terrorist organization under United States law.

We will discuss a number of issues involving the financing of terrorism and the compensation of victims.  Is it feasible to frustrate the flow of money? What mechanisms are available to  compensate victims and families?

Assignment X: Discuss the balance between national security and civil liberties drawing upon the readings and the material covered in class . Illustrate your answer with several examples. You may concentrate on a single issue. (April 4-April 18) (10 points/three pages). Due April 23.

April 9: Terrorism Prosecutions, Military Commissions, Treason Prosecutions, Lawyer/Client Privilege, Extradition & Abduction

White 267-83

Findlaw.com (click on military commissions) has a comprehensive set of documents on military commissions and prosecutions.

The indictment of Zacarias Moussaoui is on the Oklahoma Memorial site.  www.mipt

The Department of State International Information Program and University of Michigan sites contain virtually all of the relevant documents.

The documents and transcripts in the prosecutions of John Walker, Richard Reid and other unnamed suspects have yet to be posted. The complaint against Richard Reid is available on Findlaw.com and other sites.

There are a range of issues concerning the balance between due process and national security in terrorism trials which will be discussed.

April 11: Detentions, Hate Crimes, and law investigative techniques following September 11, 2001

The Palmer Raids (World War I)

United States v. Korematsu (World War II)

Detentions/consent interviews/preventive detentions of non-citizens/deportations/limitations on access to information/ domestic surveillance/militerization of domestic security

Several civil liberties organizations have detailed discussions of domestic investigative  procedures (see April  16th). You also might consult The Lawyers' Committee for Human  Rights, Since September 11th: A Chronology of the Government’s Restrictions
on Civil Liberties 

Findlaw.com features a set of documents on hate crimes against Arab-Americans

Further discussion of the balance between national security and equal protection.

April 16: Anti-Terrorist Legislation in America & Abroad

The Patriotism Act is on the Oklahoma City Memorial site David  Cole is an outspoken critic of the newly instituted policy towards non-citizens resident in the United States,  http://www.cdt.org/security/011003cole.pdf . David Cole also is written on the Patriot Act, see, Terrorizing The Constitution, terrorism.org www.mipt

The Electronic Frontier Foundation archived various articles on electronic surveillance under the Patriotism Act, http://www.eff.org/Censorship/Terrorism_militias .

The Center for Democracy and Technology: http://www.cdt.org.

Electronic Privacy Information Center, www.epic.org 

The Nation Magazine page of September 11, 2001 contains various articles and links.

Amy Balch et. al. Security With Liberty is a good introduction, http://www.thenation.com/special/wtc/index.mhtml . You also may want to consider the Nation's cache of articles on patriotism.

Civil Liberties in the Classroom and on Campus

Report of the Council of Trustees and Alumni, www.goata.org . You may want to examine another self-proclaimed conservative organization, Accuracy in Academia www.academia.org

Mark Singer, I Pledge Allegiance, New Yorker

Relevant documents also might be found at the Department of State International Information Program and University of Michigan  sites.

Several organizations provide detailed commentaries on civil liberties and the war on terrorism. The American Civil Liberties Union, www.aclu.org  ; the Cato institute, www.cato.org . Center For Democracy and Technology, www.cdt.org/security/010911response.shtml  and the Constitutional Rights Foundation, http://www.crf~usa.org . Amnesty InternationalUSA and Human Rights Watch also post material on civil liberties.

Anti-terrorist legislation has expanded the investigative authority of law enforcement officials to investigate terrorism. Have these measures impinged on civil liberties? How do we balance the need for security with the protection of civil liberties? What types of procedures have been

Implemented in other countries? What issues have arisen concerning civil liberties in the classroom and on campus?

April 18:  Homeland Defense: Aviation Security and Counter-Terrorist Technology

The Aviation and Transportation Security Act, 2001 is on the Oklahoma site. www.mipt.org 

Findlaw.com features a comprehensive set of documents (click on aviation security) as well as a set of cases on airline security.

Malcolm Gladwell, Safety in the Skies, NewYorker.com.

Air transportation is central to domestic and international commerce and to the economic life of the United States. What is the nature of the threat?  Consider the issues which arise in securing the safety of passengers, crew and aircraft?  How much of a risk should society accept?




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